Friday, September 26, 2008

more on the Asthika Systems, Nyaya

The six asthika systems are often discussed in pairs . Nyaya and Vaisesika , Samkhya and Yoga, Mimamsa and Vedanta .

Nyaya is the logical view based on dialectics , and Vaisesika is the experimental point of view based on sensorial experience.

Samkhya is based on intellectual knowledge and Yoga on the control of the senses and inner faculties .

Mimamsa is a deistic and ritualistic point of view based on the sacred texts and Vedanta is based on metaphysical speculation .


This is based on the Nyayasutra of Gautama , 2nd century AD . It was initially atheistic , and did not mention God because souls and matter are both eternal and uncreated and destiny was related to Karma . However , when the Vaisesika was linked with the Nyaya in the eighth / ninth century , the Nyaya became theistic , saying God ( as a distinct soul differing from other souls ) created the world out of eternally existing atoms , individual souls experience their Karma , but sooner or later attain liberation through right knowledge of themselves and the world , whereupon devoid of consciousness , the individual soul exists as pure substance .

The other systems will be dealt with very briefly , and then the Vedanta will be dealt with in greater detail , which consists of Advaita , Dvaita and Visistadvaita .